title
 
 
Glossary of terms used in Hinduism  
 
 

abhicara
    (alternate spellings:  abhichara)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Exorcism; practice of black magic (more)

Abhirami Antadi
    (Language:   Tamil)
See under "Abhirami Bhatta". (more)
Related Terms: Abhirami Bhatta

Abhiramibhattar
    (alternate spellings:  Abhiramibhatta)
    (Language:   Tamil)
His real name was Subrahmanya and he was a contemporary of the Maratha raja of Tanjavur, Sarabhoji II (1798-1832). (more)

abhiseka
    (alternate spellings:  abhisheka)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sprinkling; showering; bathing a deity or a guru. (more)

abhivadana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Reverential salutation of a superior like a teacher or any elder. (more)

acara
    (alternate spellings:  achara)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Matters of custom and tradition that serve as a general discipline. (more)

acarya
    (alternate spellings:  acharya)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A teacher or spiritual Master (more)

adhikarana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Placing at the head of; appointing; (more)

adhyapana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Imparting instruction in the Vedas (more)

adhyaropa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
lit. "false covering"; superimposition of the unreal upon the real. (more)

adhyasa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
false perception; superimposition. (more)

adhyaya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A chapter or division of a work (more)

adhyayana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Learning the Vedas, chanting them (more)

Adi Sankara
    (alternate spellings:  Adi Shankara)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"Adi" means "first." See under the name "Shankara" (more)
Related Terms: Shankara

Advaita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"non-dualist" interpretation of the Vedānta (more)

Agama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The āgama śāstras deal with ritual, iconography, the construction of temples, yantras and so on. (more)

agrahara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The Brahmin quarter in a village or town (more)

ahankara
    (alternate spellings:  ahamkara)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the ego; the "I"-consciousness (more)

ahimsa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"non-violence," a fundamental tenet of Hindu ethics (more)

ahitagnin
    (alternate spellings:  ahitagni)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One who tends the sacred śrauta and grhya fires (more)

ahuti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Oblation made in the sacrificial fire. (more)

Airavata
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The celestial elephant. (more)

Aiyanar
    (Language:   Tamil)
Almost all villages of Tamil Nadu have a guardian deity (grama devata) called Aiyanar, also known as Sasta. (more)

aksata
    (alternate spellings:  akshata)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Whole, uninjured; unbroken rice grains used in various rites. (more)

amrita vrisht
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
“shower of nectar” (in Hinduism) (more)

ananda
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"bliss, beatitude, joy" (more)

anandamaya-kosha
    (alternate spellings:  anandamaya-kosa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the sheath of bliss (more)
Related Terms: panchakoshas

Anandashram
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
“abode of bliss” (in Hinduism) (more)

Andal
    (Language:   Tamil)
Daughter of Visnucitta who belonged to Srivilliputtur in Tirunel­veli district. (more)

anga (s)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Limb(s); the six limbs of the Vedas (more)

annamaya-kosha
    (alternate spellings:  annamaya-kosa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the sheath of nutriment; the physical body (more)
Related Terms: panchakoshas

antahkarana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The internal organ consisting of mind, memory, intellect, and ego (more)

anudatta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Lowered tone in Vedic chanting (more)
Related Terms: udatta

anumana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Inference in Nyāya. (more)

anusvara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally means "after-sound" (more)

apara vidya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Lower type of knowledge. (more)

Apara-Brahman
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the "non-supreme" or penultimate Brahman (more)

aparoksa
    (alternate spellings:  aparoksha)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "not indirect, non-mediated"; thus, direct, immediate (jñāna, knowledge) (more)
Related Terms: paroksha

apavada
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
de-superimposition; the removal of superimposition (more)

apavarga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Liberation, emancipation of the soul (more)

Appar
    (alternate spellings:  Apparsvamigal, Apparsvamin, Tirunavukkarasu)
    (Language:   Tamil)
A celebrated Saiva saint poet whose hymns are included in the Tevaram (qv). (more)

Appayya Diksita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
(1554-1626) He belonged to a family of scholars and wrote 104 works on such topics as poetics and Vedanta. (more)

Apsara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Celestial damsel. (more)

arangerru
    (alternate spellings:  arangerram)
    (Language:   Tamil)
Presenting a literary work, dance recital or dramatic performance for the first time. (more)

arghya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Libation to the gods, rsis or fathers (more)

Arunagirinathar
    (Language:   Tamil)
He belonged to the 15th century and his hymns in praise of Kanda or Muruga (more)

arupa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
formless; beyond form (more)
Related Terms: rupa

asamshakti
    (alternate spellings:  asamsakti)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
non-attachment; the fifth of the seven stages of enlightenment (more)

ashrama
    (alternate spellings:  ashram, asram, asrama)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the four stages of life for a Hindu (more)

ashtanga-yoga
    (alternate spellings:  astanga-yoga)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
lit. "eight-limbed yoga"; a reference to the eight steps of rāja-yoga. (more)

astaksari
    (alternate spellings:  ashtakshari)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
An eight-syllable mantra like "Aum Namo Nārāyanāya". (more)

asvamedha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Horse-sacrifice performed by an imperial ruler or a "sārvabhauma" (literally a "universal monarch"). (more)

asvattha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Ficus religiosa, the sacred-fig tree ("peepal" tree), the bo tree (more)

atithya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Pertaining to a guest; acts of hospitality (more)

Atma
    (alternate spellings:  ātmā, Atmā, Âtma, Âtmâ, Atman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the real or true "Self," underlying the ego and its manifestations (more)

Atma-jnani
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
one who has realized the Self. (more)

Atma-vichara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
enquiry into the Self (more)

Atma-vidya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Science of the Self; it is learning that imparts the highest wisdom and enlightenment. (more)

Aum
    (alternate spellings:  Om)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the most sacred syllable in Hinduism, regarded as the "seed" of all mantras (more)

Auvvai
    (alternate spellings:  Auvvaiyar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
Great saint-poetess who is often referred to as "Auvya-patti". (more)

avarana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the veiling or concealment of Brahman by manifestation. (more)

avastha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
state of consciousness (more)

avatara
    (alternate spellings:  avatar)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the earthly "descent," incarnation, or manifestation of God (more)

avidya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"ignorance" of the truth; spiritual delusion, unawareness of Brahma. (more)

avyakta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
hidden, unmanifest. (more)

azhvar
    (alternate spellings:  alvar, alwar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
The word means "immersed in the Lord". The Azhvars, numbering twelve, are Vaisnava saint-poets. (more)

bahudaka
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a wandering renunciate (sannyāsin) who undertakes pilgrimages to the holy sites (more)
Related Terms: kuteechaka hamsa paramahamsa

bali
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
This is also one of the "panca-mahāyajnas" and vaiśvadeva or bhūtayajna rite to be performed by the householder. (more)

balya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"childhood," spiritual childlikeness; used as an expression of humility. (more)

Bana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A great master of Sanskrit prose, he flourished in the court of Harsavardhana of Kānyakubja (A.D. 606-647). (more)

Bhagavad Gita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
lit. "the Song of the Lord"; a text of primary rank dealing with the converse of Krishna (an incarnation of Vishnu) and the warrior Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra. (more)

bhagavan
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
noble; holy; an epithet used by devotees when addressing the personal God (Īshvara) (more)

bhajan
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
religious music (in Hinduism) (more)

bhakta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a follower of the spiritual path of bhakti (more)

bhakti
    (alternate spellings:  bhakti-marga)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the spiritual "path" (mārga) of "love" (bhakti) and devotion. (more)

bhakti-yoga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the spiritual path of love and devotion. (more)

Bharati
    (Language:   Tamil)
See under Subrahmanya Bharati. (more)
Related Terms: Subrahmanya Bharati

Bhartrhari
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A popular poet and grammarian believed to be from the 7th century. (more)

bhasma
    (alternate spellings:  bhasman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sacred ashes smeared on the forehead and body (more)

bhasya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Commentary or exposition, especially of sūtras (more)

Bhavabhuti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
As a poet and dramatist, his place is second only to that of Kālidāsa. (more)

bhedavasana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
latencies connected with differentiation (more)
Related Terms: vasana

bhiksha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
alms (in Hinduism) (more)

bhogavasana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
latencies connected with enjoyment (more)
Related Terms: vasana

bhutayajna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the offering of food to all created beings. (more)
Related Terms: bali

Bilhana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Kāśmiri poet (10th-11th centuries) (more)

bilva
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The egle marmelos tree, considered sacred to Lord Shiva. (more)

Bodhendra Sarasvati Svamin
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The 59th Śankarācārya of Kanci Kamkoti Pītha (1638-1692), he was known as "Bhagavannāma Bodhendra." (more)

Brahma
    (alternate spellings:  Brahmâ)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
God in the aspect of Creator, the first divine "person" of the Trimūrti; (more)

brahmacarin
    (alternate spellings:  brahmachari, brahmacharin)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One who has had his upanayana (i.e formal initiation into Vedic study under a guru) (more)

brahmacarya
    (alternate spellings:  brahmacharya)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Total discipline required to master the Vedas and other branches of learning. (more)

brahmacaryasrama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The first stage of life, that of the brahmachārin. (more)

Brahmaloka
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the heavenly paradise of Brahmā . (more)

Brahman
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
.Brahman considered as transcending all "qualities," attributes, or predicates (more)

Brahman nirguna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the Supreme Reality, the Absolute.Brahma considered as transcending all "qualities," attributes, or predicates (more)

Brahman saguna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Brahma "qualified" by attributes and predicates (more)

Brahmana
    (alternate spellings:  Brahmin)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"Brahmin"; a member of the highest of the four Hindu castes; a priest or spiritual teacher. (more)

brahmarandhra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Aperture in the crown of the head where. the susumna nādi terminates. (more)

brahmavi
    (alternate spellings:  brahmavid)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
one who has realized Brahman (more)

brahmopadesa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Instruction in the Vedas or sacred knowledge. (more)

Brihaspati
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a Vedic god; chief priest of the gods (more)

Brndavana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Forest near Gokula, the word brnda (or vrnda) itself meaning the tulaśī. (more)

buddhanusmriti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
(continual) "remembrance or mindfulness of the Buddha" (more)
Related Terms: nien-fo nembutsu

buddhi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"Intellect"; the highest faculty of knowledge, to be contrasted with manas (more)

caitanya
    (alternate spellings:  chaitanya)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Spirit, life, vitality. (more)

caturdasa-vidya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The foruteen branches of Vedic learning the four Vedas (more)

caula (or cudakarma)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The first cutting of the hair on the head of a child (more)

cayana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally collecting or piling (more)

cela
    (alternate spellings:   chela, celâ, chela, chelâ)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, a disciple (more)

chandala
    (alternate spellings:  candala)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
outcaste or "untouchable"; pariahs who stand outside the Hindu caste system (more)
Related Terms: varna

Chandas
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The Vedas; prosody. (more)

chit
    (alternate spellings:  Chit, cit)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
one of the three essential aspects of Apara-Brahma, "consciousness" (more)

Chitta
    (alternate spellings:  citta)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The consciousness, the mind (more)

daksina
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A present, gift or fee paid to a priest or to a guru (more)

daksinayana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The six months from the time the sun turns from the tropic of Cancer (more)

dana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Giving, donation, charity. (more)

Dandin
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sri Dandin was an author from Kānci and who lived during the reign of the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I (630-668). (more)

darbha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A kind of sacred grass used in religious rites (more)

darshan
    (alternate spellings:  darsan, darsana, darśaṇa, darshana)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, literally, "seeing," "viewing," or "perceiving" (more)

dehavasana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
latencies connected with the body (more)
Related Terms: vasana

deva
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a god (more)

dhanurveda
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The art of warfare or weaponry; military science (more)

dharana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Concentration; fixing one's mind or inner faculties on an object, on the One Reality. (more)

dhoti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A long strip of white cotton fastened at the waist and draped around the lower part of the body (in Hinduism). (more)

Dhyani-Bodhisattva (and Dhyani-Buddha)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Bodhisattva and Buddha "of meditation" (more)

diksa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Initiation in general; consecration for a religious ceremony (more)

dirgha-sumangali
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a long-lived sumangali (qv). (more)
Related Terms: sumangali

Divya Prabandham
    (Language:   Tamil)
The "Divine Collection" of hymns to Lord Vishnu by the Alvar mystics. (more)
Related Terms: azhvar

dravya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Material; material for a sacrificial rite. (more)

dravya-suddhi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Dravya". (more)
Related Terms: dravya

Dvaita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
System of Vedanta according to which the individual self and the Brahman are two separate entities. Duality. (more)

Ekadasi
    (alternate spellings:  Ekadashi)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Eleventh day of the lunar fortnight that is sacred to Vishnu. (more)

Gandharva
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Celestial musician; one of a class of demigods. (more)

garbhadhana (or niseka)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Saṃskāra (ceremony, sacrament, rite) in which marriage is consummated; impregnation. (more)
Related Terms: samskara

Gayatri
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Mantra held in great esteem and regarded as the essence of the Vedas (more)

Gayatri-japa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Repeating, invoking, the Gāyatri mantra (more)
Related Terms: Gayatri

gerrua
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Ochre; the ochre cloth of a monk (in Hinduism). (more)

ghanapathin
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One who can chant the Vedas according to the ghana method. (more)

gotra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Familv, lineage, descendants of a great sage (more)

graha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A celestial body (more)

grantha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A literary work or treatise (more)

grhastha
    (alternate spellings:  grihastha)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Householder. Grhasthāśrama is the second stage in a man's life (āshrama), that of the householder, wherein the student marries, performs the requisite rituals and serves family and community. (more)

grhasthasrama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "grhastha". (more)
Related Terms: grhastha

guna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A cosmic quality, of which there are three: sattva (purity, harmony, essence), rajas (passion, energy), and tamas (obscurity, inertia) of which all of manifestation is constituted. (more)

guru
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
spiritual guide or Master (more)

gurukripa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the companion of the guru; the grace of the guru (more)

gurukula
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Guru". (more)
Related Terms: guru

Gurukulavasa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Guru" (more)
Related Terms: guru

gurumantra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, holy formula given by the guru (more)

hamsa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a renunciate (sannyāsin) who attains to Satyaloka after the death of the body (more)
Related Terms: kuteechaka bahoodaka paramahamsa.

harijan
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A term, whose literal meaning is "born of God" or "child of God," designating one of the so-called "untouchable" class (more)

havis
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
An oblation or burnt offering. (more)

Hiranyagarbha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a manifestation of īshvara in association with the totality of subtle beings in the dream state (more)
Related Terms: svapna

homa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Offering oblations in the consecrated fire. (more)

Ilngo Adigal
    (Language:   Tamil)
Cera prince, author of the Silappadikaram. (more)

Indrani
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The consort of Indra, the king of the celestials. (more)

Ishvara
    (alternate spellings:  Isa, Isvara)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
master, lord, Supreme Being, "possessing power" (more)

istadevata
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One's chosen deity; the deity one particularly likes to adore. (more)

jagat
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"world"; the existing or manifested universe. (more)

jagrat
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the waking state; associated with Vishva and annamaya-kosha. (more)

jambu
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Eugenia jambolana, "black plum" or jambu tree. (more)

janavasam
    (Language:   Tamil)
The place where the bridegroom and his people were accommodated on the eve of marriage. Currently, it is described as; the groom is taken through the streets on the eve of the wedding. (more)

japa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
repetition" of a mantra or sacred formula (more)

jatakarma
    (alternate spellings:  jatakarman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A samskāra (rite or ceremony)performed for the well-being of a new-born son. (more)
Related Terms: samskara

jati
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One of the many subdivisions of a varna. (more)
Related Terms: varna

jiva
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the individual soul; the living being. (more)

jivan-mukta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
one who is liberated while still alive in the body. (more)

jivan-mukti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the state of liberation while still alive in the body. (more)

jivatman
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the individual self. (more)

jnana
    (alternate spellings:  jñana)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Knowing or understanding. (more)

jnana-kanda
    (alternate spellings:  jñana-kanda)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the wisdom portion of the Vedas (more)
Related Terms: karma-kanda.

jnana-marga
    (alternate spellings:  jñana-marga)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the spiritual "path" (mārgav) of "knowledge" (jñāna) and intellection. (more)

jnana-yoga
    (alternate spellings:  jñana-yoga)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the spiritual path of knowledge or wisdom. (more)

Jnanasambandhar
    (alternate spellings:  sambandha­murti, sambandhar, tirujnanasathbandhar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
One of the great figures of Southern Saivism. He is believed to have performed a number of miracles and played a notable role in restoring the glory of Vedic religion. (more)

jnanendriya
    (alternate spellings:  jñanendriya)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the organs of sense-knowledge. (more)

jnanin
    (alternate spellings:  jnani, jñani, jñanin)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a person whose relationship with God is based primarily on sapiential knowledge or gnosis (more)

kaivalya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the state of liberation, or emancipation. (more)

Kalidasa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The most celebrated poet and dramatist of the "classical" period of Sanskrit. (more)

kalpa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One of the six Vedangas; it is usually referred to as a "manual of rituals". (more)
Related Terms: Vedanga

kalpavrksa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Celestial tree that yields all desires (more)

Kama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Desire; one of the purusārthas ; god of love (more)

Kamadhenu
    (alternate spellings:  Kamaduh)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Celestial cow that grants all desires. (more)

Kamban
    (alternate spellings:  Kambar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
Called the "emperor of poets", he is the author of the Tamil Ramayana (or Ramavataram). (more)

Kannagi
    (Language:   Tamil)
A character in Silappadikram, by Ilango Acligall. Also, "Wife goddess", a model of chastity. (more)

Kannappa
    (alternate spellings:  Kannappar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
A hunter who dug out one of his eyes to be offered to Siva at Kalahasti. (more)

karana-sharira
    (alternate spellings:  karana-sarira)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the causal body; identical with ānandamaya-kosha. (more)

Karikala Chola
    (Language:   Tamil)
One of the builders of the Chola empire (2nd century C.E.), he was "as great in war as in peace." (more)

karma
    (alternate spellings:   kamma (Pali), karman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
action; the effects of past actions; the law of cause and effect ("as a man sows, so shall he reap") (more)

Karma-kanda
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the ritual portion of the Vedas (more)
Related Terms: jnana-kanda.

karma-marga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the spiritual “path” (mārga) of “action” (karma) or righteous deeds (more)

karma-yoga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the spiritual path of action. (more)

karmendriya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the organs of action. (more)

Karta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Creator, God; one who performs a religious function (more)

kazhakkodi
    (Language:   Tamil)
It is a grey-coloured seed that resembles a marble (more)

ketaki
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The screwpine flower. (more)

khadira
    (Language:   Sanskrit, Latin)
Acacia catechu. (more)

Koccenkot Chola
    (Language:   Tamil)
A Chola king who was a builder of temples and is regarded as a Nayanar. (more)

kovalan
    (Language:   Tamil)
See under " Kannagi". (more)
Related Terms: Kannagi

Krita Yuga
    (alternate spellings:  Satya Yuga)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the first yuga in a given cycle of time; the Golden Age. (more)

kshatriya
    (alternate spellings:  ksatriya)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a member of the second highest of the four Hindu castes (more)

Kumarilabhatta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Great mimārirsaka and senior contemporary of Sankara Bhagavatpāda. (more)

kumbhabhiseka
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sanctifying ceremony connected with the building renovation or reconstruction of a temple and the installation of a deity (more)

Kun Pandyan
    (Language:   Tamil)
Jnanasarihbandhar (qv) is said to have removed the hunch (kin) of this Pandyan ruler and made him upright. (more)

Kural
    (alternate spellings:  Tirukkural)
    (Language:   Tamil)
One of the most widely known Tamil classics, it consists of 1,330 stanzas and deals with ethics and morality (more)

kurapudavai
    (Language:   Tamil)
The 18-cubit sari worn by the Tamil Brahmin bride (more)

kuteechaka
    (alternate spellings:  kuteecaka, kuticaka, kuticaka)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
a resident renunciate (sannyāsin) who remains fixed to one abode (more)
Related Terms: bahoodaka hamsa paramahamsa

lagna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The moment of the sun's entrance into a zodiacal sign (more)

laksana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Quality, property or distinguishing characteristic (more)

lila
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"play, sport" (more)

loka sangraha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
welfare of the world (in Hinduism) (more)

lokavasana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
latencies connected with the world (more)
Related Terms: vasana

Madhvacarya (Madhva)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Founder of the Dvaita of Vedānta. He was born in a village near Udupi, Karnātak in 1199 (more)

maha-naivedya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "naivedya" (more)
Related Terms: naivedya

maha-pralaya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, the "great" or final "dissolving" of the universe. (more)

Mahapralaya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the “great” or final “dissolving” of the universe at the end of a kalpa, or “day in the life of Brahmā”. (more)

mahasamadhi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the final merging into the Absolute with no return to corporeal existence (more)

mahatma
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
great soul; sage (in Hinduism) (more)

Mahavakyas
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
four "great sentences" from the Vedas, proclaiming the truth of ātman/Brahman identity (more)

Mahendravarman I
    (Language:   Tamil)
7th Century Pallava ruler who excavated temples from living rock and had a great interest in art. (more)

maingala-sasanam
    (Language:   Tamil)
Places that have been sung by the Vaisnava hymnodists and been made specially sacred by their words with their grace and power of creating auspiciousness. (more)

maitri
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
benevolence; kindness (more)

manana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
constant reflection upon the Truth as given by a spiritual Master (guru) (more)
Related Terms: shravana and nididhyasana

manas
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
mind (more)

Mangaiyarkkarasi
    (Language:   Tamil)
Pandyan queen who humbled herself, along with her minister Kulacciraiyar, in the service of Siva. (more)

mangala-sutra (mangalya-sutra)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The auspicious string worn by the bride at her wedding (more)

mangalya-dharana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Wearing of the mangala-sūtra during the marriage ceremony. (more)

mani
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"jewel," often in the shape of a tear-drop (more)

Manikkavacakar
    (Language:   Tamil)
A Saiva saint and composer who spent his early years as a minister to a Pandyan king. (more)

manomaya-kosha
    (alternate spellings:  manomaya-kosa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the sheath of the mind (more)
Related Terms: panchakoshas

manonasha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
extinction of the mind (more)

mantra
    (alternate spellings:  mantram)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
literally, "instrument of thought" (more)

mantraksata
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Simply stated, unbroken rice grains that are imbued with the power of mantras are mantrāksata. (more)

mantrapuspa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The recitation of a sacred text with the offering of flowers. (more)

mantravadin
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One who recites mantras; one who tries to cure diseases, etc., with the chanting of mantras (more)

mantrika
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under mantravādin". (more)
Related Terms: mantravadin

Manu-niti-cola
    (alternate spellings:  manu-niti-kanda-cola)
    (Language:   Tamil)
An ancient king of legendary fame held up as an ideal in dispensing justice. (more)

manvantara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The regnal period of a Manu. (more)

marga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, a spiritual “way, path”; see bhakti, jnāna, karma. (more)

marjana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
wiping away, cleaning, washing, purifying (more)

Mastan Sahib
    (Language:   Tamil)
Mastan Sahib (1800-1847) was a man of great devotion and one of the first to translate the Qur'an into Tamil. (more)

matha
    (alternate spellings:  math)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The dwelling of an ascetic. (more)

matra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
literally, "measure, element" (more)

Maya
    (alternate spellings:  Māyā)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"artifice, illusion"; in Advaita Vedānta, the beguiling concealment of Brahma (more)

Menaka
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The name of a divine dancer, who was considered one of the most beautiful of the celestial damsels (apsaras). (more)
Related Terms: Apsara

Minaksisundaram Pillai
    (Language:   Tamil)
Minaksisundaram Pillai (1815-1876) was a man of great erudition with profound knowledge of the Tamil heritage. (more)

mleccha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
foreigner; "barbarian"; one who deprecates the Vedas (more)
Related Terms: varna

Mt. Meru
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Purānic legend, the mythical golden mountain; the axis of the world. (more)

mudita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
sympathetic joy; joy at the happiness of others. (more)

mudra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Sanskrit, “seal, sign.” In Hinduism and Buddhism, a stylized and symbolic gesture, especially one involving the hands and the fingers. (more)

muhurta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A period of 48 minutes; an instant; auspicious time for the performance of a rite. (more)

mukta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, one who has attained moksha or “liberation”; see jivan-mukta. (more)

mumukshutva
    (alternate spellings:  mumuksutva)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
the desire for liberation; one of the four prerequisites for qualification as a spiritual aspirant of Vedānta (more)
Related Terms: sadhanacatushtaya; viveka vairagya and shatkasampatti.

murti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Anything that has a definite shape; an image or idol; personification. (more)

Murugan
    (alternate spellings:  Muruga)
    (Language:   Tamil)
Litteraly meaing, beautiful. The Tamils regard him as their god. (more)

Muvar
    (Language:   Tamil)
The three great Saiva saint-poets (more)

Muvendar
    (Language:   Tamil)
The rulers of the three Tamil kingdoms (more)

Naccinarkiniyar
    (Language:   Tamil)
A Saiva who was vastly erudite in Tamil and probably also in Sanskrit. (more)

nadi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Blood vessel or nerve. (more)

nadika
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A measure of time. (more)

nagasvaram
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Musical instrument of the South — a double-reed pipe. (more)

Naisadham
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Sriharsa (Śrīharṣa)." (more)
Related Terms: Sriharsa

naivedya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
What is presented or offered to a deity. Mahā-naivedya is cooked rice offered to a devatā. (more)

Nakkirar
    (Language:   Tamil)
Author of the famous Tirumurugarrupadai which forms the first part of the Sarngam classic, Pattupattu. (more)

nalaingu
    (Language:   Tamil)
On the afternoon of a Tamil wedding, the bride and groom keep rolling a coconut (real or one made of brass or bell-metal) between them. (more)

Nalayira-divyaprabandham
    (Language:   Tamil)
The collected hymns of the twelve Azhvars (more)

Nalvar
    (Language:   Tamil)
The four great Saiva saints (more)

nama-japa
    (alternate spellings:  namajapa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Repeating the names of the Lord in an undertone. (more)

namakarana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The naming ceremony. (more)

namam
    (Language:   Tamil)
name, appellation; reputation, fame; also the sectarian mark worn by followers of Vishnu in southern India, worn in 12 places while reciting the 12 names of Vishnu (more)

Nammazhvar
    (Language:   Tamil)
The greatest of the Azhvars, he is regarded as an incarna­tion of Senai Mudaliar or Visvaksena (chief of the Lord's hosts). (more)

nayanar
    (alternate spellings:  nayanmar)
    (Language:   Tamil)
The word means a leader or chieftain. The Nayanmars are devotees of Siva and are 63 in number, including members of all jatis like Brahmins, hunters, untouchables. (more)

nididhyasana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Profound meditation. (more)
Related Terms: shravana manana

Nilakantha Diksita
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Great-nephew of Appayya Dīkṣita who is remembered for his poetic works, Śivalīlārnava and Śivatattvarahasya. (more)

nirguna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
impersonal aspect of God (in Hinduism) (more)

nirguna Brahman
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, Brahman without attributes; a term used to describe the Absolute. (more)

nirvana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Buddhism (and Hinduism), liberation; absorption in the Absolute (more)

nirvikalpa samadhi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Absorption in Brahman where all consciousness of duality or multiplicity is extinguished. (more)
Related Terms: savikalpa samadhi

niyama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, “discipline”, whether on the bodily or psychic level (more)

Om mani padme hum
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "O Thou jewel in the lotus, hail." (more)
Related Terms: padma

Otttakuttar
    (alternate spellings:  Ottakuttan)
    (Language:   Tamil)
"Emperor of poets" known as being a great devotee of the goddess, Sarasvati. (more)

paccai
    (Language:   Tamil)
This word refers to a custom followed in Southern (or Tamil) weddings in which a paste of kumkuma and oil is applied to the bride's face as well as to the groom's. (more)

padartha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The meaning of a word or the thing corresponding to it; category or predicament. (more)

padarthabhavani
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The untainted awareness of the Self (Ātman). (more)

padma
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A lotus flower. (more)
Related Terms: Om mani padme hum

palasa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A tree bearing red flowers; Butea frondosa. (more)

palika
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The custom of germinating seeds, observed in ceremonies like caula, upanayana and marriage. (more)

pancakaccha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Style of wearing the dhoti in which the pleats are tucked in. (more)

pancaksara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Five-syllable mantra, "Namah Śivāya." Also Śiva-Pancākṣara. (more)
Related Terms: Siva-pancaksara

pancama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "the fifth caste." One who is outside the four varṇas. (more)
Related Terms: varna

panchakosha (s)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The five sheaths. (more)
Related Terms: anandamaya-kosha manomaya-kosha pranamaya-kosha annamaya-kosha

panguni-uttram tirukkalyanam
    (Language:   Tamil)
In March-April when the full moon is usually conjoined with the asterism Uttara-Phalguni. (more)

panigrahana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Marriage rite in which the groom takes the right hand of the bride in his. (more)

para-vidya
    (alternate spellings:  para vidya )
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Higher learning; learning related to the Self or the Ultimate Truth. (more)
Related Terms: apara vidya

parabhakti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
“Supreme devotion” in Hinduism (more)

Parabrahma
    (alternate spellings:  Para-Brahma, Para-Brahman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The "supreme" (para) or ultimate Brahma, also called Brahma nirguṇa; the Absolute as such. (more)
Related Terms: Apara-Brahman

paradesikkolam
    (Language:   Tamil)
It is the same as Kasiyatra which (in Tamil Brahmin marriages) simulates the groom's journey to Kasi. (more)

paramahamsa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A renunciate (saṃnyāsin) who attains to liberation in this life. (more)
Related Terms: kuteechaka (ku?icaka) bahoodaka (bahudaka) ha?sa

Paramatma
    (alternate spellings:  Paramatman)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The "supreme Self." (more)

Paripadal
    (Language:   Tamil)
It is part of the Ettutogai ("Eight Anthologies) (more)

parisecana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sprinkling water; this is done at mealtime- water is sprinkled round the food before it is eaten. (more)

paroksha
    (alternate spellings:  paroksa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Indirect, mediate. (more)
Related Terms: aparok?a

paropakara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Philanthropy; serving others; humanitarian work. (more)

pasuram
    (Language:   Tamil)
A devotional or mystic poem (more)

Pathasala
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A Vedic school. (more)

pathya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
What is suitable or what is liked; diet regimen during medical treatment. (more)

patigam
    (Language:   Tamil)
A poem consisting of ten (or sometimes eleven) stanzas. (more)

patita-pavana
    (alternate spellings:  patitapavana)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The Lord who sanctifies the sinner or raises him up. (more)

pativrata
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The chaste, devoted and loyal wife. (more)

pativratya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Total and unquestioning devotion to the husband. (more)

Pattinattar
    (Language:   Tamil)
A great siddha whose hymns are included in the eleventh Tirumurai (qv). (more)

Pattupattu
    (Language:   Tamil)
It is a collection of Ten Songs (more)

pauranika
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
One who is learned in the Purāṇas and gives discourses on them. (more)

Periyapuranam
    (Language:   Tamil)
This 12th - century work of Sekkizhar (qv) forms the concluding part of the Tirumurai. (more)

Perumal
    (Language:   Tamil)
The term usually refers to Visnu or any Vaisnava deity. (more)

pitri (s)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Ancestors. (more)
Related Terms: shraddha

pragrahana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Receiving gifts. (more)

prajapati
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "Lord of creatures;" the forefather of all beings. (more)

prajna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
As (1) prājñā: A state of deep sleep; as (2) prajñā: Wisdom; pure consciousness. (more)
Related Terms: su?upti

prakriti
    (alternate spellings:  prakrti)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "making first." (more)
Related Terms: purusha materia prima

prakrti
    (alternate spellings:  prakriti)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, literally, “making first” ; the fundamental, “feminine” substance or material cause of all things (more)

pralaya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
“Dissolution”; Hindu teaching that all appearance is subject to a periodic process of destruction and recreation; see mahāpralaya. (more)

pramana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Authority; source of knowledge; a measure or standard; per­ception. (more)

prana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Vital breath. (more)

pranamaya-kosha
    (alternate spellings:  pranamaya-kosa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The sheath of the vital breath. (more)
Related Terms: panchakosha

pranava
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Aum (Oṃ)." (more)
Related Terms: Aum Om

pranayama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Control of breath so as to master prāṇa, the vital breath. (more)
Related Terms: raja-yoga

prapatti
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
"Seeking refuge;" pious resignation and devotion to God. (more)

prasada
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, radiance or happiness. (more)

prathama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
First day of the lunar fortnight. (more)

pratisakhya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Related to śikṣā and the study of the śabda-śāstra of the various Vedic recensions, it examines Vedic sounds. (more)

pratyaksa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Directly perceptible to the eye. (more)

pravesa-homa
    (alternate spellings:  pravesahoma)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The rite performed soon after the groom returns to (or "enters") his house with his bride. (more)

prayascitta
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Expiatory rites; atonement. (more)

prayoga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Procedure for the application of mantras to various religious rites. (more)

prem
    (alternate spellings:  prema)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
pure love for the Divine (more)

Puhazhendi Pulavar
    (Language:   Tamil)
A Vaisnava poet belonging to the 12th century and a contemporary of Kulottunga II. (more)

puja
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
worship (in Hinduism) (more)

pumsavana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Rite for the birth of a male child usually performed in the third month of pregnancy. (more)

pundra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
According to the Paramaguru, the mark worn on the forehead, "puṇḍra," is derived from "puṇḍarīkaṃ," meaning a lotus or a lotus petal. (more)
Related Terms: tilaka

Purananuru
    (Language:   Tamil)
An anthology belonging to the third Samgam period (c. 300 B.C.E. to C.E. 200) and forming part of the Ettutogai. (more)

Puranas
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
age-old stories of Hindu mythology (more)

purna svaraj
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Complete self-rule. (more)

purodasa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A sacrificial oblation made of ground rice. (more)

purusarthas
    (alternate spellings:  purusharthas)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The four aims of a man's life. (more)
Related Terms: kama dharma moksa

purusha
    (alternate spellings:  purusa)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "man;" the informing or shaping principle of creation; the "masculine" demiurge or fashioner of the universe; see "Prakriti (Prakṛti)." (more)
Related Terms: prakriti

purva-sikha
    (alternate spellings:  purvasikha)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "sikha (śikhā)." (more)
Related Terms: sikha

pusari
    (Language:   Tamil)
Priest (usually non-Brahmin) of a small temple. (more)

Radhakrishnan
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
An eminent Hindu philosopher and a prolific writer. (more)

raga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Colour; passion; emotion; a melodic mode. (more)

raja-yoga
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The principal system of yoga as taught by Patañjali consisting of eight steps. (more)
Related Terms: ashtanga-yoga

Rajarajai
    (Language:   Tamil)
Chola emperor (985-1014), his empire included most parts of South India and created an administrative system that was remarkable for his time. (more)

rajas
    (alternate spellings:  rajasic)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, the second of the three gunas, or cosmic forces that result from creation. Rajas literally refers to "colored" or "dim" spaces, and is the guna whose energy is characterized by passion, emotion, variability, urgency, (more)
Related Terms: guna

rajasic
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, pertaining to rajas, which is the quality of activity or restlessness (more)

rajasuya
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A great sacrifice performed by a universal monarch. (more)

rajoguna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "guna (guṇa)." (more)
Related Terms: guna

Ram
    (alternate spellings:  Rama)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
In Hinduism, one of the names by which to call God. (more)

Ram bhajan
    (alternate spellings:  Rama bhajana)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, devotional singing or meditation on God (more)

Ram mantram
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, a sacred formula invoking Ram (more)

Rama
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The seventh incarnation (avatāra) of Vishnu and the hero of the epic tale, Rāmāyaṇa. (more)
Related Terms: avatara

Ramalingar
    (alternate spellings:  Ramalingasvami)
    (Language:   Tamil)
Ramalingar (1823 -1874) was a mystic devoted to Siva and Muruga, and who preached universal brotherhood. (more)

Ramanujacarya
    (alternate spellings:  Ramanuja)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Founder of the Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta (qualified non-dualism) was born in Śrīperumbudūr, Tamil Nadu, in 1027. (more)
Related Terms: Visistadvaita Vedanta

Ramanujacarya, c.
    (Language:   Tamil)
He dedicated himself to the cause of Ramakrsna Math in memory of his cousin. (more)

Rambha
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
See under "Apsara." (more)
Related Terms: Apsara

Ramnam
    (alternate spellings:  Ramanama)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, the name of Ram; the name of God (more)

rishi
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
in Hinduism, a seer. (more)

rtvik
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Priest, especially one associated with sacrifices. (more)

rudraksa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Elaeocarpus ganitrus. (more)

rupa
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
form (more)
Related Terms: arupa

sabda
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Sound; word; logos. (more)

sabda-brahman
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The Brahman as sound. (more)

sabda-pramana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Verbal authority like that of the Vedas; the words of sages and other great men. (more)

Sadasiva Brahmendra
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A great saint, yogin and mystic, he was a disciple of the 57th Shankarācārya of Kāncī Kāmakoti Pītha (1539-1586). (more)

sadhaka
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A spiritual aspirant; one who endeavors to follow a method of spiritual practice. (more)

sadhana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
A method of spiritual practice. (more)

sadhana-catushtaya
    (alternate spellings:  sadhanacatushtaya saguna)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
The four prerequisites for qualification as a spiritual aspirant of Vedānta. (more)

sadhu
    (alternate spellings:  sâdhu)
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
an ascetic or a sage (in Hinduism). (more)

sagun darshan
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
vision of God with attributes (more)

saguna
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
personal God; God with attributes (more)

sahagamana
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Literally, "accompanying." A widow ascending the funeral pyre of her husband; what is known as satī. (more)

saksatkara
    (Language:   Sanskrit)
Direct realization. (more)